, D. salina lacks a rigid cell wall, which makes the organism susceptible to osmotic pressure. D. salina comes in various shapes and symmetries depending on the conditions in its current environment. Wengmann K. “Osmotic Regulation of photosynthetic Glycerol Production in Dunaliella.” Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1971. Betatene ® is a naturally sourced beta-carotene derived from algae (Dunaliella salina) and part of the broad beta-carotene product range BASF offers. Hydrobiologia. Today, the algae is being studied for various health benefits. Food Chem Toxicol. These enzymes regulate glycerol requirements of the cell by responding to osmotic stresses. Oren A. (2011). Process development and evaluation for algal glycerol production. 14. D. salina is also adapted to solar radiation using β-carotene to protect against ionizing energy. Martinez et al. The GC content of "D. salina" is relatively low compared to other Chlamydomonadales at 34.4% for mitochondrial DNA and 32.1% for plastid DNA. Attempts have been made to exploit the high concentrations of glycerol accumulated by D. salina as the basis for the commercial production of this compound. Due to its ability to produce red pigmentation, β-carotene, the natural food colouring is highly demanded for cosmetic products. Dunaliella is a unicellular, bi-flagellate, naked green alga (Chlorophyta, Chlorophyceae). Dunaliella Salinais a green algae best known for turning lakes red around the world. Rejuvenal healthy aging, n.d. utilizing the 18S rDNA gene.” Letters in Applied Microbiology, 2000. Lives in environments with a … Chen H., Lu Y. and Jiang J. Dunaliella species are able to tolerate varying NaCl concentrations, ranging from 0.2% to approximately 35% . In simple terms, it means, these … Dunaliella salina is rich in beta carotenoid, which is a provitamin A, a precursor to vitamin A. What is Dunaliella? Journal of Biotechnology, 2011. Annu Rev Microbiol. Journal of Applied Phycology 19: 567-590. However, despite the positive contributions of D. salina, commercial production is limited due to the low productivity of β-carotene . Rejuvenal healthy aging, n.d. n.d. It is a whole food supplement. Schilipaulis L. “The Extensive Commercial Cultivation of Dunaliella.” Bioresource Technology, 1991. (2007). Dunaliella Salina Powder is known as the "power source of cells" and "protective agent of life" by the world scientific community due to its rich and unique life nutrient elements. Ben-Amotz A, Avron M. The biotechnology of mass culturing. In order to maximize β-carotene production, D. salina should be grown in 1.5M to 3.0 M NaCl concentration until a stable cell density is reached then increased to 4.4 – 5.0 M NaCl concentration for maximum carotenoid production . Few organisms can survive like D. salina does in such highly saline conditions as salt evaporation ponds. To survive, these organisms have high concentrations of β-carotene to protect against the intense light, and high concentrations of glycerol to provide protection against osmotic pressure. Journal of Alloys and Dunaliella Salina Powder is obtained by Dunaliella salina through multiple processings. Known for its antioxidant activity because of its ability to create large amount of carotenoids, it is used in cosmetics and dietary supplements. Dunaliella salina It’s an halophile microalga that grow in high salt concentrations, this fact reduces drastically the possibilities that pathogenic microorganisms can grow up. Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in government, … Low salt concentrations of 2% and 5% induced sexual activity, whereas higher salt concentration of 30% decreases sexual reproduction. The organism was fully described as a new, separate genus simultaneously by Teodoresco and Clara Hamburger of Heidelberg, Germany in 1905. Although the biochemistry and physiology of D. salina has been researched, much about the genome was unknown until Smith et al. 3. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1980. pp. Oren A. and Rodriguez-Valera F. “The contribution of halophilic Bacteria to the red coloration of saltern crystallizer ponds.” FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 2001. Dunaliella is a single-celled, photosynthetic green alga, that is characteristic for its ability to outcompete other organisms and thrive in hypersaline environments.  D. salina may also be a source of vitamin B12. 22 Nov 2012. “Comparative Analysis on the Key Enzymes of the Glycerol Cycle Metabolic Pathway in Dunaliella salina under Osmotic Stresses.” PLoS ONE, 2012, DOI: , Species in the genus Dunaliella are morphogically similar to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with the main exception being that Dunaliella lack both a cell wall and a contractile vacuole. Algae Biomass. 1964;42:777–778. The β-carotene appears to protect the organism from long-term UV radiation that D. salina is exposed to in its typical environments. , D. salina can reproduce asexually through division of motile vegetative cells and sexually through the fusion of two equal gametes into a singular zygote. Farhat et al. 1983;37:95–119. Few organisms can survive like D. salina does in such highly saline conditions as salt evaporation ponds. Brock T. “Salinity and the Ecology of Dunaliella from Great Salt Lake.” Journal of General Microbiology, 1975. This combination offers potential in biotechnological applications for the purpose of commercial products such as lipstick due to β-carotene production . What is Dunaliella salina? Osmotic stress affects enzyme activity of key enzymes of the glycerol metabolic pathway: glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatase, dihydroxyacetone reductase, and dihydroxyacetone kinase. Volume 3: Chlorophyta. Can J Bot. Heakal F., Hefny M., El-Tawab A., “Electrochemical behaviour of 340L stainless steel in high saline and sulphate solutions containing alga Dunaliella salina and β-carotene. Dunaliella salina is a unicellular green alga found in environments with high salt concentration . Dunaliella salina is a type of one-celled green microalgae which was first discovered in 1838 in Southern France. Just like other forms of algae, it is an aquatic organism that grows in salt water. Dunaliella salina are found in high salinity environments such as salted brines, salt evaporation ponds, and hypersaline lakes . Journal of Phycology 47(6): 1454-1460.  D. salina preserves a high concentration of glycerol by maintaining a cell membrane with low permeability to glycerol and synthesizing large quantities of glycerol from starch as a response to high extracellular salt concentration, which is why it tends to thrive in highly salinic environments. Compounds, 2010, DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2009.11.028. Farahat N., Rabhi M., Falleh H., Jouini J., Abdelly C. and Smaoui A. Dunaliella salina was named by Emanoil C. Teodoresco of Bucharest, Romania after its original discoverer, Michel Felix Dunal, who first scientifically reported sighting the organism in saltern evaporation ponds in Montpellier, France in 1838. This natural beta-carotene offers a number of unique … But don’t let its pedigree fool you--this little alga is bright pink! Lerche W. Untersuchungen über Entwicklung und Fortpflanzung in der Gattung Dunaliella. Web. Craigie JS, McLachlan J. Glycerol as a photosynthetic product in Dunaliella tertiolecta Butcher. Although there is a much greater abundance of D. salina, the red pigments on the cell membrane of archaea are more visibly accessible. 8. Dunaliella is known for its antioxidant activity … “A century years of Dunaliella research: 1905-2005.” Saline Systems, 2005. Dunaliella salina is a unicellular green alga of the genus and was studied since the early 19th century, and numerous species were characterized and classified since then. Known for its antioxidant activity because of its ability to create large amount of carotenoids, it is used in cosmetics … Arch f Protistenkd. Smith D., Lee R., Cushman J., Magnuson J., Tran D. and Polle J.” The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA.” BMA Plant Biology, 2010. determined that sexual activity of D. salina significantly decreases in higher salt concentrations (>10%) and is induced in lower salt concentrations. The genus was first described by Teodoresco (Teodoresco, 1905) with the type of species being Dunaliella salina, and … He initially named the organism Haematococcus salinus and Protococcus. 22 Nov. 2012. Mokady S, Abramovici A, Cogau U. 1984;116/117:115–121.  Sexual reproduction begins when two D. salina’s flagella touch leading to gamete fusion. Cancer . Glycerol synthesis from starch is regulated through osmotic changes as shown in Figure 5. Glycerol is a compatible solute in which not only contributes to osmotic balance of the cell but also maintains enzyme activity (Brown as stated in Oren). Gimmler H. and Hartung W. “Low Permeability of the Plasma Membrane of Dunaliella parva for Solutes.” Journal of Plant Physiology, 1988. Dunaliella salina and Dunaliella bardawil are the most important species for β-carotene production; however, other pigments and compounds like lutein, chlorophyll, glycerol, and polyunsaturated fatty acids are also produced by these and other Dunaliella … DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2011.01036.x, 4. doi: 10.1007/BF00027649. β-carotene also contributes to the anti-oxidant effects of D. salina and is used as an additive in human and animal nutrition for sources of vitamin A . are motile, unicellular, rod to ovoid shaped green algae, which are common in marine (salient) waters. Gantner Verlag K.-G.. Mixed Carotenoids. They are contained in the chloroplasts in lipid globules. Skin Nourishment and moisturizing Dunaliella Salina contains effective mineral high concentration of … 2. 1. 10. The cell membrane of D. salina has low permeability to glycerol to prevent glycerol from leaving the cell , accounting for the high concentration inside the cell. The ability to tolerate high salt concentrations is advantageous, since competition is minimal as salt high salt concentrations. Dunaliella Salina is a micro algae species. Tawan Chatsungnoen, Yusuf Chisti, in Biofuels from Algae (Second Edition), 2019. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-10-83. Johnson M., Johnson E., MacElroy R., Speer H. and Bruff B. “Effects of Salts on Halophilic Alga Dunaliella viridis.” Journal of Bacteriology, 1968. 12. 22 Nov 2012. Eukaryota (Domain); Viridiplantae (Kingdom); Chlorophyta (Phylum); Chlorophyceae (Class); Volvocales (Order); Dunaliellaceae (Family); Dunaliella (Genus). “Microalgal Biotechnology and Bioenergy in Dunaliella” Biomedical Engineering, 2011.  Different technologies are used, from low-tech extensive cultivation in lagoons to intensive cultivation at high cell densities under carefully controlled conditions. Kumudha A, Sarada R. Characterization of vitamin B12 in. Dunaliella salina was thought to be responsible for the red colouring of salted brines . After germination, the zygotes release up to 32 haploid daughter cells. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. Martinez G., Cifuentes A., Gonzalez M. and Parra O. Dunaliella salina is a safe and potent source of natural beta-carotene and suitable for all types of skin disorders and inflammation. So pink, in fact, that it makes this salt lake in western Australia look like it’s made of … Dunaliella salina is a type of halophile green micro-algae especially found in sea salt fields. (2011). It provides a range of trace minerals and nutrients. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-10-83. The chloroplast can hold large amounts of β-carotene, which makes it appear orange-red. doi: 10.1146/annurev.mi.37.100183.000523. High extracellular salt concentration drives the synthesis of glucose. Teodoresco was the first to publish his work, so he is generally given credit for this categorization. Dunaliella has two flagella of equal length and has a single cup-like chloroplast that often contains a central pyrenoid.
, 6. 1981;23:1267–1287. It acts as a powerful antioxidant for skin. 6.3.2 Spacing between electrodes. 10.1371/journal.pone.0037578, 16. Dunaliella sp. Olmos J., Paniagua J. and Contreras R. “Molecular identification of Dunaliella sp. What makes it so special is that it actually thrives in harsh … To survive, these organisms have high concentrations of β-carotene to protect against the intense light, and high concentrations of glycerol to provide protection against osmotic press… Dunaliella salina,the English name Dunaliella salina,was from 3.8 billion years ago. Dunaliella salina is a genus of one-celled green microalgae first discovered in 1838 in southern France. , Due to the abundance of β-carotene, which is an anti-oxidant as well as a vitamin A precursor, D. salina is a popular pro-vitamin A food supplement and cosmetic additive.  sequenced five species of Dunaliella using their 18S ribosomal RNA genes. Thus, Dunaliella salina is a hyper-halotolerant organism found in high densities in saline lakes.  found that high salt concentration inside cells decrease enzymatic activity. Known for its antioxidant activity because of its ability to create large amount of carotenoids, it is used in cosmetics and dietary supplements. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from the green alga Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyta). This page was last edited on 7 June 2020, at 19:54. 1937; 88:236–268. Dunaliella Salinais a green micro-algae typically found in sea salt fields around the world. Johnson et al. 2 It is often referred to as a halophile (literally, “salt-loving”) alga because it grows only in high-salt … What is Dunaliella Salina? “Comparative Analysis on the Key Enzymes of the Glycerol Cycle Metabolic Pathway in Dunaliella salina under Osmotic Stresses.” PLoS ONE, 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037578.  determined the sexual activity of "D. salina" from evaluating ratio of zygotes and zygospores to total cells observed in culture. 13. From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource, http://blog.recoverye21.com/dunaliella-salina/, https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php?title=Dunaliella_salina&oldid=142865. Dunaliella salina extract is also a natural source of vitamin B12. "A hundred years of Dunaliella research: 1905-2005", MicrobeWiki reference on Dunaliella salina, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dunaliella_salina&oldid=985733698, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. In addition, the role of glycerol in D. salina as a key organic compatible solute has been used as a … Zhao, R., Cao, Y., Xu, H., Lv, L., Qiao, D. & Cao, Y. The taxonomy of the genus Dunaliella (Chlorophyta, Dunaliellales) with emphasis on the marine and halophilic species. Massjuk, N.P. Tammam A., Fakhry E. and El-Sheekh M. “Effect of salt stress on antioxidant system and the metabolism of the reactive oxygen species in Dunaliella saline and Dunaliella tertiolecta.” African It can be used to boost your protection against UV damage and increase … DOI: 10.5897/AJB10.2392. Biotechnol Bioengin. 7. 152–157. The sequencing of Dunaliella species is important to isolate different species for commercial purposes. In addition, Smith et al. Dunaliella salina is a type of halophile pink micro-algae especially found in sea salt fields. Glycerol is used as a means by which to maintain both osmotic balance and enzymatic activity. Borowitzka, M.J. & Siva, C.J. Although technically the production of glycerol from D. salina was shown to be possible, economic feasibility is low and no biotechnological operation exists to exploit the alga for glycerol production.. “Optimization of salt concentrations for a higher carotenoid production in Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyceae).” Phycological Society This offers an opportunity for commercial biological production of these substance. It is mostly a marine organism, though there … , From a first pilot plant for D. salina cultivation for β-carotene production established in the USSR in 1966, the commercial cultivation of D. salina for the production of β-carotene throughout the world is now one of the success stories of halophile biotechnology. They belong to the category of halophiles. D. salina has adapted to survive in high salinity environments by accumulating glycerol to balance osmotic pressure. Distance between the electrodes in an electrolytic unit is an important design variable that affects the cost of operation .In harvesting of Dunaliella salina … DUNALIELLA SALINA EXTRACT and EXTRACT OF DUNALIELLA SALINA. DOI: 10.1016/0960-8524(91)90162-D, 5.  found that both genomes are highly occupied with introns: mitochondrial DNA (58%) and plastid DNA (65.5%). Different technologies are used, …  studied the effects of salinity to maximize β-carotene production and found carotenoid concentration increases with increasing salinity. Ben-Amotz A. Glycerol, β-carotene and dry algal meal production by commercial cultivation of Dunaliella. β-carotene is a type of pro-vitamin A, responsible for inhibiting the production of free radicals from ultraviolet light . Web. “Effect of salinity on sexual activity of Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teodoresco, strain CONC-006.” Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 1995. 17. Studies have found that Dunaliella salina … When applied on skin it can reverse any ongoing oxidative damage to the … The safety evaluation of Dunaliella bardawil as a potential food supplement. Michel Felix Dunal first discovered "D. salina" in 1838 in the south of France occupying; however, it was not named until 1905 by Teodoresco . Glycerol is produced through two metabolic processes: intracellular synthesis through a photosynthetic product and metabolism of starch in the cell .